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battle of calais 1588

However, this trapped them in the North Sea, and forced them to return to Spain by sailing around the north coast of Scotland and then down the west coast of Ireland - a perilous journey in which the fleet suffered the loss of many ships and men. In 1557 when Mary Tudor was queen, her husband Philip of Spain involved England in war with Henri II. However, at the beginning of the French Wars of Religion, the new queen Elizabeth I of England, revived her kingdom's claims to Calais and took the French port of Le Havre. In these circumstances, Francis, Duke of Guise, who had raised an army and prepared to lead it in Italy, was recalled to Picardy and promoted to lieutenant-general of France. Rutland’s expedition embarked on January 2nd, but when they arrived they found that the Duke of Guise had struck swiftly across the frozen marshes on the town’s seaward side to seize the entrance to the harbour and the fort that commanded it. France had to fight the English on three occasions during the sixteenth century (1526, 1544, and 1547) when they attempted to extend the English possessions in Picardy. The government decided to send reinforcements under the Earl of Rutland, but England was gripped by so serious an epidemic of influenza that fit men were difficult to find. Fax: +44 01937 842110, We’re proud to sponsor TABS Cricket Club, Harrogate Town AFC and the Wetherby Junior Cricket League as part of our commitment to invest in the local community, Company Reg no: 04489574 | VAT reg no 816865400, © Copyright 2018 |Privacy & cookies|Terms of use, GCSE: Early Elizabethan England (1558-88) - "Impossible 5" Revision Activity, GCSE: Early Elizabethan England (1558-88) -"Red Herring" Revision Activity, GCSE: The Spanish Armada - "Codecracker" Revision Activity, Consequences of English Victory over Spain, Reasons for English Victory in the Spanish Armada, GCSE: Early Elizabethan England (1558-88) - Timeline of Key Events, Weimar & Nazi Germany (1918-39) - Timeline of Key Events, Hitler & The Nazi Party - The Lean ("Wilderness") Years from 1924-1928, Culture and Architecture in the Weimar Republic (1924-29), Assessment Mats for Weimar and Nazi Germany | Edexcel GCSE History, Weimar and Nazi Germany (1918-39) - Exam Buster Revision Guide for Edexcel GCSE (9-1) History, Advertise your teaching jobs with tutor2u. The Spanish Armada was an enormous 130-ship naval fleet dispatched by Spain in 1588 as part of a planned invasion of England. Near Calais, the Franco-Burgundian forces were frequently pitted against the English garrison forces and against the Duchy of Burgundy. The French king saw an opportunity and in December 1557 Philip sent word to London of an impending attack on Calais. Plans for a counter-attack were abandoned and Queen Mary famously said that when she died, Calais would be found engraved on her heart. In the absence of any natural defence, continued English control of Calais depended on fortifications maintained and built up at some expense. Its hopes of invasion crushed, the remnants of the Spanish Armada began a long and difficult journey back to Spain. Alice Hunt; Anna Whitelock; Chawton House. Off the coast of Gravelines, France, Spains so-called Invincible Armada is defeated by an English naval force under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake. Then the wind changed, and the Spanish were able to escape to the north-east. Jim co-founded tutor2u alongside his twin brother Geoff! France had to fight the English on three occasions during the sixteenth century (1526, 1544, and 1547) when they attempted to extend the English possessions in Picardy. After eight hours of furious fighting, a change in wind direction prompted the Spanish to break off from the battle and retreat toward the North Sea.

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