But for the time being, it is distressing for me.” Another respondent opined: When we used to live in Pakistan, he sometime showed aggressive [violent] behavior. Usually, daughters also learn “appropriate” gender-roles by watching their “mothers-fathers” relations. in Williams, P. & Chnsman, L. (Eds) Colonial Discourse and Postcolonial Theory: A Reader. The Free Press, New York; 1979. 75). Gelles, R. J. In Germany their are many Pakistani men who have achieved excellence in many fields. Crowell NA, Burgess AW (Eds): Understanding violence against women. Danyal Ali Rizwan is another Pakistani migrant who is currently living in an asylum center in the town of Neumarkt in the southern German state of Bavaria. 73-82. The present study showed that the prevalence of IPV among these immigrant women was relatively low compared to their counterparts in Pakistan. For Ali, being employed means more than just earning extra money. Sevenhuijsen, S. (1998) Citizenship and the Ethics of Care. Bulpett, C. (2002) Regimes of Exclusion European Urban and Regional Studies Vol. Crow, G , Allan, G. & Summers, M. (2002) Neither Busybodies nor Nobodies. I felt totally insulted. Accessed 5 June 2011 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/beijingdeclaration.html. But such ‘freedom’ was strictly forbidden for women.” She further observed: “There is much hypocrisy among some Pakistani men regarding their attitude towards women. 33(1), March, pp. Westergaard, J. Leisermg, L & Leibfried, S. The father has no control over his daughter. … God forbid, if they do something wrong, my husband will never spare me. The questions then narrowed to their perceptions of and attitudes to IPV, their experiences of psychological and physical violence (because of cultural sensitivities, any discussion of sexual violence was avoided) from their husbands. Research with Older People from Three Ethnic Mmonty Community Groups. Overall, it was noted that immigrant families were trying to adopt and adjust to the host country’s realities with or without extended family. (2000) Defining British National Identity. (1985) The Symbolic Construction of Community Chichester: Ellis Horwood Limited Publishers. The nationally representative data from any host country on the prevalence of IPV in immigrant families is unavailable (Menjivar and Salcido ). Fremont Universal Unity. Heinelt, H. (1993) Immigration and the Welfare State m Germany. European Societies Vol 4(3), pp 285-306. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Twenty-year-old Usman was the youngest among them and most fluent in the German language. The concept of psychological violence was first explained to the respondents. Houghton Mifflin Co. Gaille, D (1994) Are the Unemployed an Underclass9 Some Evidence from the Social Change and Economic Life Initiative. The data showed that the process of immigration exacerbated tensions between spouses because of various immigration stressors such as threats to cultural identity, children’s socialization, and social isolation. Four main themes emerged from the analysis of data: (a) change of culture and familial relations; (b) Migration/acculturation stressors and abuse in spousal relations; (c) women’s experiences of IPV, and (d) women’s response to IPV. 227-252. The empirical data have shed light on the nature and dynamics of spousal relations in immigrant Pakistani families in Germany. Colley, H & Hodkmson, P. (2001) Problems with Bridging the Gap: The Reversal of Structure and Agency in Addressing Social Exclusion. Gender Soc 2002,16(6):898-920. Religion, Politics and Society. 10.1023/A:1009412119016. Secondly, complaining about their husband may provoke him to take the extreme step of divorce and no woman wanted such an outcome. It is argued that in Pakistan gender relations are based upon structures of oppression that are deeply embedded in its distinct geography, history, and culture (Critelle and Willett ). The participants were offered an information list of social services and resources provided by local service agencies. However, he has learned very quickly how to adapt spicy Indian-Pakistani cuisine to suit German and European taste buds. For example, their immigration status renders previous social skills and status irrelevant and also disrupts the social relations and family support system of the natal country (Sullivan et al. In Foot, P. 10.1177/1077801208327020. Understandably, in the new set-up, they may encounter various stressful situations because of language barriers, limited economic resources, discrimination and racism, clashing cultural values, and social isolation (Bui ; Kim et al. London. Islamic Values, Human Agency and Social Policies University of Leeds RAPP Research Working Papers, pp 31-53. Power, A & Wilson, W. (2000) Social Exclusion and the Future of Cities Case Paper February. Psychological violence was reported by most of the participants (21 of 32). While discussing physical violence, women reported that in Germany men were deterred from committing open acts of physical abuse because of the strict laws and reasonably efficient police and judicial system. In Diversity and complexity in feminist therapy. For ensuring privacy no personal information like names and addresses were asked, instead specific codes were used to identify the respondents’ responses. Lund, B. Interviews were initially transcribed into Urdu and were subsequently translated into English. Pakistani-Germans refers to the ethnic community in Germany of Pakistani heritage or descent. Normatively, mothers provide training for their daughters about their culturally expected gender-roles. 511-527. Calhoun, C (1994) Preface. Theories of Ethics. 10.1027/1864-9335/a000033, Gelles RJ: Family violence.  In 2009, the German government estimated the number of people of Pakistani descent residing in Germany at 76,173. Many of these Kashmiris, Punjabis and Sindhis worked in the munition factories of Birmingham. However, such thresholds of exclusion are fluid, subject to individual resource and identity negotiations that call into Edited by: Straus MA, Gelles RJ. 10-12. London: Routledge Siddique, M. (1993) Moral Spotlight on Bradford Bradford. Sociology Vol. During the course of the interviews, it was noted that the women wanted to avoid the stigma of being a “problematic wife”. Fiscal Studies. ). TEA Health and Welfare Unit. 80-88. London: Universit College London Press, pp. Universitat Bremen. & Small, N. (Eds) Death, Gender and Ethnicity. & Mirza, K. (1996) Social Care and Black Communities A Review ofRecent Research Studies. 10-36. Another reason to stay in an abusive relationship reported by some women was the primacy of their family institution. A typical stereotype was the influence of Western culture on the morality of men. Vol. Sage Publications, pp. Gunaratnam, Y. 1-21. Here, “isolation refers to the individual’s perception and reality of being emotionally and socially alone, economically confined, and culturally disconnected. 289-304. What type of stressful situations did you experience after coming to Germany? & Collard, J. Anyone who grew up in the United States with immigrant parents will tell you the same thing — growing up with two cultures is damn hard. A Pakistani in Germany | Vlog. Oxford University Press. Cabinet Office, (2000) Social Capital A Discussion Paper London Performance and Innovation Unit Cagier, A S. (2001) Constraining Metaphors and the Transnattonalisation of Spaces in Berlin. Section 3.3 explores the potential for the British and German. The data revealed that the women wanted to avoid confrontation with their husbands. During the course of the interviews, almost all the participants talked about cultural differences. Almost all types of immigrants face some difficulties in settlement and adjustment process, but the undocumented immigrants or those who are less educated, poorly trained or lacked proper competencies to understand the host country’s social or economic system may likely to face more difficulties and settlement challenges in the host country (Samuel ). 26(1), March, pp. 10.1177/089124302237894, Morash M, Bui H, Stevens T, Zhang Y: Getting out of harm’s way: One-year outcomes for abused women in a Vietnamese immigrant enclave. One of the participants, while unfolding her memories, told us: When I came to Germany for the first time, I was just 20 years old. 1-30. Rees, T. (1982) Immigration Policies in the United Kingdom In Husband, C. (Ed) 'Race' in Britain Continuity and Change. Aldershot: Edward Elgar, pp. University of Leeds RAPP Research Working Papers, pp. 4(4), October, pp. Raj A, Silverman J: Violence against immigrant women: The roles of culture, context, and legal immigrant status on partner violence. Hill, H. (1985) Black Labour and the American Legal System Race, Work and the Law. Dwyer, P. (2004) Understanding Social Citizenship Themes and Perspectives for Policy and Practice. Aziz, K. K. (2001) Pakistan's Political Culture Essays in Historical and Social Origins Islamabad: Vanguard. The acceptance ratio among male applicants between the ages of 18 and 34 was even lower at 2.7 percent. 1-14. 33(4), December, pp 348-359. 24, pp 67 1-689 Gardner, K. (2002) Age, Narrative and Migration: The Life Course and Life Histories ofBengali Elders in London Oxford: Berg Publishers. 28(3), August, pp 737-757. Nonetheless, recent research has shown that various individual, community and socio-cultural factors (Heise ) provide a context wherein spousal power relations defined; and violence is used as a tool by the husband to maintain the asymmetry of relations and to ensure the dominance and control over wife. Link to post Share on other sites. 1155-1158. Mead, C. M. (1986) Beyond Entitlement. ; Thapa-Oli et al. So, in order to ward off such fears, individual and collective efforts were made to preserve their cultural identities and “moral purity”. Questions related to women’s life after migration in Germany and their marital experiences were asked in following ways: “What type of changes did you feel after coming to Germany? 11(4), December, pp. Myth or Reality' Oxford Oxford University Press. Share this post. Menjivar and Salcido ). Cambridge Journal of Economics Vol. In Pakistani culture, the power position of family members is rigidly defined by variables such as age, gender, and economic contributions (Ayyub ). Henry, M G. (2003) 'Where Are You Really from9': Representation, Identity and Power m the Fieldwork Experiences of a South Asian Diasponc Qualitative Research Vol. DW editor Christoph Hasselbach has found that the topic of immigration offers some interesting object lessons. Adjustment and resettlement of Pakistani immigrant families to Germany is expected to be a challenging and difficult process. Vol. Guillemard, A. Schofield, B (2002) Partners m Power Governing the Self-Sustaznmg Community. Zokaei, S. & Phillips, D (2000) Altruism and Intergenerational Relations Among Muslims in Britain. Mann, K. (2001) Approaching Retirement Social Divisions, Welfare and Exclusion. Gunaratnam, Y. "The Pakistani community is not big in Germany, but most living in Germany for the past few decades are now well settled. 42 Household means tested benefits indirectly discriminate against multigenerational household, relatively common amongst Pakistam and Bangladeshi families in Britain (Berthoud, 2000). Though our data supported the findings of earlier studies on immigrant women, they also challenged various stereotypes about immigrant Pakistani families, especially those relating to the attitudes of men towards women. Almost all the participants who had daughters believed that they should “keep an eye” on their daughters because they could not afford “too much freedom”, even though they pretended to be very liberal and Westernized. Zes-Arbeitspaper 6/2001. 10.1177/10778019922181400, Mehrotra M, Calasanti TM: The family as a site for gendered ethnic identity work among Asian Indian immigrants. The new social environment may create irritants and tensions between immigrant couples (Dion and Kawakami ). They arranged my stay in the Frauenhaus. Non-EU citizens, on the other hand, are only granted permission to work certain jobs for which German or EU citizens are not available. Watson, J. 10.1177/0192513X09357557, Menjivar C, Salcido O: Immigrant women and domestic violence: Common experiences in different countries.