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[16] The new government also levied taxes on the Church and issued legislation[when?] But Pope Leo X's attempt to prosecute Luther's teaching on indulgences, and to eventually excommunicate him in January 1521, did not get rid of Lutheran doctrine but had the opposite effect of further splintering the Western church. Two days after his oath, on Christmas Day 800, Leo crowned Charlemagne as emperor.

Of outstanding significance, not least for the English-speaking world, was Leo's encyclical Apostolicae curae on the invalidity of the Anglican orders, published in 1896. [41] Joseph McCabe accused Pastor of untruthfulness and Vaughan of lying in course of their treatment of the evidence, pointing out that Giovio and Guicciardini seemed to share the belief that Leo engaged in "unnatural vice" (homosexuality) while pope.

Henry VIII announced his adherence in August 1521. Those who have rejected the evidence include: Fabroni, Angelo.

[28] He also fostered technical improvements developed for the diffusion of such scores. [43], Pope Leo X died fairly suddenly of pneumonia at the age of 45 on 1 December 1521 and was buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome.

Yet "Such a humanistic interest was itself religious. In his encyclical on the 50th anniversary of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception, he stresses Mary's role in the redemption of humanity and calls her Mediatrix and Co-Redemptrix. In his Memoirs[30] Kaiser Wilhelm II discussed the "friendly, trustful relationship that existed between me and Pope Leo XIII."

[44][incomplete short citation] This debt contributed not only to the calamities of Leo's own pontificate (particularly the sale of indulgences that precipitated Protestantism) but severely constrained later pontificates (Pope Adrian VI; and Leo's beloved cousin, Clement VII) and forced austerity measures. Considered a great diplomat, he managed to improve relations with Russia, Prussia, Germany, France, Britain and other countries. Pope Leo XIII began his pontificate with a friendly letter to Tsar Alexander II in which he reminded the Russian monarch of the millions of Catholics living in his empire who would like to be good Russian subjects if their dignity were respected. [3] Vincenzo studied at the Academia dei Nobili, mainly diplomacy and law. The Catholic Encyclopedia, "Raphael's Portrait "Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici and Luigi de' Rossi": A Religious Interpretation", Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Genealogical tables of the House of Medici, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pope_Leo_X&oldid=981302080, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Articles needing additional references from April 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2020, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 October 2020, at 13:57. Charlemagne's gift enabled Leo to be a great benefactor to the churches and charitable institutions of Rome.

Two guards lifted her (still on her knees in front of the Pope) by her arms and carried her to the door, where a third gave her a medal of the Pope. In a brief the Pope also directed Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor to take energetic measures against heresy. The following year, on 12 May 1879, he raised to the rank of cardinal the convert clergyman John Henry Newman,[35] who would eventually be beatified by Pope Benedict XVI in 2010 and canonized by Pope Francis in 2019. [9] In light of continuing earthquakes and floods, he donated all resources for festivities to the victims. [27], His favourite poets were Virgil and Dante.[28]. 361–414, Flesch, Marie. The Centre Party in Germany represented Catholic interests and was a force for social change.

[6], Leo has been criticized for his handling of the events of the papacy. Leo XIII brought normality back to the Church after the tumultuous years of Pius IX. He was buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva.

[6], Leo is the fifth of the six popes who are unfavorably profiled by historian Barbara Tuchman in The March of Folly, and who are accused by her of precipitating the Protestant Reformation.

[22] He was also the first Pope to be filmed by a motion picture camera. The most recent biography of the pope speculates that his private life may have been marked by moral irregularity: Celebrated Crimes, Vol. "Giangiorgio Trissino."

Pope Leo XIII was able to reach several agreements in 1896 that resulted in better conditions for the faithful and additional appointments of bishops. He then had Leo escorted back to Rome.
"[38], Against this allegation is the papal bull Supernae dispositionis arbitrio from 1514 which, inter alia, required cardinals to live "... soberly, chastely, and piously, abstaining not only from evil but also from every appearance of evil" and a contemporary and eye-witness at Leo's Court (Matteo Herculaneo), emphasized his belief that Leo was chaste all his life. A year of fruitless negotiations followed, during which the controversy took popular root across the German states. He returned to Rome to participate in the conclave of 1492 which followed the death of Innocent VIII, and unsuccessfully opposed the election of Cardinal Borgia (elected as Pope Alexander VI).

[2] He also reversed Adrian I's decision in regards to the granting of the pallium to Bishop Hygeberht of Lichfield.

[6], The war of Urbino was further marked by a crisis in the relations between pope and cardinals. Leo helped reverse that trend. [39] However, one year later, Chilean President Domingo Santa María, a member of the Liberal Party in defiance of the opposition, the fiercely-Catholic Conservative Party, issued the Leyes Laicas (Laic Laws), which reduced the faculties of the church over state and society, though it was not until 1925 that President Arturo Alessandri, also from the Liberal Party separated the church from the state.

Crimes for the moment disappeared, to give place to vices; but to charming vices, vices in good taste, such as those indulged in by Alcibiades and sung by Catullus. [6], In 1519 Hungary concluded a three years' truce with Selim I, but the succeeding sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent, renewed the war in June 1521 and on 28 August captured the citadel of Belgrade.

The fight against corruption continued in Perugia, where Pecci investigated several incidents.

The outcome of this investigation was positive and so in the encyclical letter Annum sacrum (on 25 May 1899), he decreed that the consecration of the entire human race to the Sacred Heart of Jesus should take place on 11 June 1899.

Leo XIII named four individuals as Doctors of the Church: One of the first audiences that Leo XIII granted was to the professors and students of the Collegio Capranica, where in the first row knelt in front of him the young seminarian Giacomo Della Chiesa, the future Pope Benedict XV, who would reign from 1914 to 1922.

Cardinal Pecci was elected on the third ballot and chose the name Leo XIII. [34] Scabrous verse libels of the type known as pasquinades were particularly abundant during the conclave which followed Leo's death in 1521 and made imputations about Leo's unchastity, implying or asserting homosexuality. In 1887, he approved the foundation of Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo, which were organized by the Bishop of Piacenza, Giovanni Battista Scalabrini. Pope Leo IX (21 June 1002 – 19 April 1054), born Bruno of Egisheim-Dagsburg, was the bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from 12 February 1049 to his death in 1054.

On 8 December 1869, an ecumenical council, which became known as the First Vatican Council, was to take place in the Vatican per Pope Pius IX. He approved the cult of Cosmas of Aphrodisia.

Leo vacillated between the powerful candidates for the succession, allowing it to appear at first that he favoured Francis or a minor German prince.

Under Otto von Bismarck, the anti-Catholic Kulturkampf in Prussia led to significant restrictions on the Catholic Church in Imperial Germany, including the Jesuits Law of 1872. Leo's intellectual and diplomatic skills helped regain much of the prestige lost with the fall of the Papal States. Milan and Genoa were to be taken from France and restored to the Empire, and Parma and Piacenza were to be given to the Church on the expulsion of the French. Ga naar: navigatie, zoeken (Gent 22 december 1911 – Buenos Aires 23 juli 1997). He canonized Adrian III on 2 June 1891. He maintained close relations with Poland because of the Turkish advance and the Polish contest with the Teutonic Knights. [35] Suggestions of homosexual attraction appear in works by two contemporary historians, Francesco Guicciardini and Paolo Giovio.


An attempt late in 1519 to seize Ferrara failed, and the pope recognized the need for foreign aid. [32], Leo indulged buffoons at his Court, but also tolerated behavior which made them the object of ridicule. Ultimately, however, Lorenzo was confirmed as the new duke of Urbino. In the conclave, the cardinals faced varied questions and discussed issues like church–state relations in Europe, specifically Italy; divisions in the church and the status of the First Vatican Council.

The pope or his legate, however, took no steps to correct abuses or otherwise discipline the Scandinavian churches.[6]. When he firmly reasserted the scholastic doctrine that science and religion coexist, he required the study of Thomas Aquinas[20] and opened the Vatican Secret Archives to qualified researchers, among whom was the noted historian of the Papacy Ludwig von Pastor. He was then taken to the piazza of St Peter's and was mounted on the back of Hanno, a white elephant, the gift of King Manuel I of Portugal. [35] In 1879 Catholic missionaries associated with the White Father Congregation (Society of the Missionaries of Africa) came to Uganda and others went to Tanganyika (present day Tanzania) and Rwanda. During the 1870s, in his last years in Perugia, Pecci addressed the role of the Church in modern society several times, defining the Church as the mother of material civilization because it upheld human dignity of working people, opposed the excesses of industrialization and developed large-scale charities for the needy.

[2] In return, Charlemagne sent letters of congratulation and a great part of the treasure which the king had captured from the Avars.[4]. However, some years after his death, his remains were put into a tomb that contained the first four popes named Leo.

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